Exploring Grove Farm Quarry’s History to Determine a Restoration PlanSamantha Hauser Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
The Grove Farm Quarry has not been in operation since 2006 and as such is a prime candidate for restoration. Analysis of historical maps and local knowledge reveals that the Kapunakea Pond, Waiopili Heiau, wetlands, and upland forests previously existed on the quarry site. However due to extensive excavation, there are only remains of the past landscape. The lake has dried up, the heiau’s basaltic rocks have been scattered, and the wetland and upland forest communities are barely surviving. Assessment of the historical landscape can inform a viable restoration of this culturally and ecologically significant site. An effective restoration of the site would, prevent siltation and improve runoff to a nearby stream, and contribute to the preservation of the Kauaian culture.
Grove Farms Museum:
- Historic maps from 1875-1959
- Topographic and landscape information
- Gatewing X100 imagery (6/23/2012)
- LiDAR satellite imagery (c. 2007)
- Worldview2 satellite imagery (c. 2006)
- GPS Trimble data of current features (6/22/2012)
Georeferencing with Worldview2 Satellite Imagery in ERDAS 2010
- Historic maps from 1875-1959
- Gatewing X100 Imagery (6/23/2012)
- GPS Trimble points and lines (6/22/2012)
Digitizing historic map features of hydrological, cultural, and ecological significance in ArcMap 10.0
Creating a DEM from the LiDAR data to analyze the topography of the quarry for a restoration plan in ArcMap 10.0
Throughout the historic maps ranging from 1875 to 1918, the Kapunakea Pond has consistently appeared as a dominant feature of the quarry area. However, the main inconsistency throughout each of these maps is the shape, area, and location of this lake. This could be due to human modification. However, in 1918 a spring pump appeared after which the lake disappeared from the historic maps. The lake feature as represented on each historical map was digitized for each year and the resulting polygons were unioned, and intersected. The coefficient of areal correlation (CAC) was calculated to determine the extent to which the distributions correspond to one another. This measure indicated a 10.78% coincidence of the pond over all years. The lake was largest in in 1876 with a CAC value of 60.24%.
Vegetation: Currently, the Makauwahi Cave Reserve has reforested the upland forest to the east of the Grove Farms Quarry. A continuous upland forest would be achieved by reforesting the current upland area. Using the LiDAR data, the high elevation with low slope region on the southwest portion of the quarry was chosen for reforestation effort. (FIGURE
Archaeology: Using the GPS Trimble data of identified archaeological and paleontological features, such as grave sites and fossil exposures, the proposed restoration/preservation was mapped out. Based on the historic location of the Waiopili Heiau (1959), the future location of the heiau was determined. This was overlaid on Worldview2 imagery (FIGURE 8).
Hydrology: Based on this assessment, a proposed reconstruction of the Kapunakea Pond is not recommended. Alternatively, a series of retention basins with surrounding wetlands provides the opportunity to restore ecological function inside the quarry. LiDAR data was turned into a digital elevation model and analyzed using slope and flow direction. The location of future retention basins were selected based on areas currently exhibiting flat areas surrounded by steeper slopes,relatively lower elevations, and areas identified as receiving flow from the south and southwest(FIGURE 8 ).
I would like to thank the following people and organisations: Avery Sandborn, Lawrence Fujiwara, and John Thorton O’Connor, Geospatial Research and Mapping Program, Dr. Suzanne Wechsler, Dr. Carl Lipo, Dr. Christopher Lee, Dr. Matt Becker, Mike Ferris, Briton Voorhees, Paul Nesbit, Jake Kovalchik, Wes Ellis, California State University -Long Beach, Dr. David Burney, Matthew Lucas, National Tropical and Botanical Garden, Dr. Lida Pigott Burney, Chuck Devaney, Dave Hummer, Ted Ralston, Hal Hammat, Teddy Blake, Dr. Terry Hunt, and Chuck Blay.
This research was made possible by the National Science Foundation, Research experiences for Undergraduates Program. Grant Award #: 1005258