Understanding Grading Systems
Selecting a grading system is the first step in setting up your grade book. The grading system determines how the grade items in your grade book contribute to users’ final grades. There are three options:
- grade items can count as a percentage of a final grade worth 100%,
- grade items can be worth a certain amount of points that are totaled for a final grade.
- you can define a custom formula for how grade items contribute to a final grade.
Choose the option that best matches how you plan to evaluate users.
The weighted system calculates grade items as a percentage of a final grade worth 100%. The Max. Points you assign to individual grade items can be any value, but their contribution towards the category they belong to and the final grade is the percentage value (weight) assigned to them. Grade items in a category count as a percentage of that category not of the final grade. Therefore, grade items in a category should combine to a weight of 100%.
For example, if you have a category worth 10% of the final grade with two equally weighted grade items, the weight of each grade item is 50% (its contribution to the category) not 5% (its contribution to the final grade). Since it's a category’s weight and not an individual grade item’s weight that counts toward the final grade, the final grade is inaccurate until all the items in the category are graded. Therefore, releasing calculated final grades to users before the end of the course might be misleading.
If your grade items do not add up to 100% you receive a warning message, which you can ignore if you choose; a balanced grade book is not required. If the weights assigned to grade items do not sum to 100%, the tool adjusts the weight of each item. For example if you have three grade items with a weight of 25% each, each item is actually calculated as 33%. This is true for categories and the final grade.
Use the points system when you want the Max. Points assigned to a grade item to be equal to its contribution to the final grade. Final grades are calculated by adding a user’s score on all grade items together and dividing by the sum of the Max. Points values. The sum of the Max. Points values for all grade items does not need to equal 100. With the points system you do not specify a category’s weight or total points. It is the Max. Points assigned to an individual grade item that counts toward the final grade.
Tip: Make sure the Max. Points assigned to grade items reflect how much you want them to be worth. For example, don’t grade each of your 20 homework assignments out of 50 points and then your final exam out of 80 points. Another option in the point system is to exclude an item from the final grade calculation. This enables you to evaluate a grade category, numeric grade item, selectbox grade item or pass/fail grade item, without including the grade in users’ calculated or adjusted final grades. The “Exclude from Final Grade Calculation” check box is available from the Grading section of the New/Edit Item page and the New/Edit Category page. You can achieve similar functionality in the weighted system by setting the grade item or category’s weight to 0%.
Use the formula system when you want to calculate final grades using a custom formula. The formula system is based on the points system, but allows you to set conditions around grade items to determine the final grade. For example, you could require that users receive at least 50% on their midterm and final exam to pass a course.
To set a calculation formula, edit the Calculated Final Grade.
Note: The formula system might not be available at your organization. If you do not have this option, you can release the adjusted final grade and calculate your custom formula manually, or you can contact your site administration about getting access to this functionality.