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Kirstyn Chun, Counseling and Psychological Services, chaired a symposium presentation titled “The Intersection of Multiple Identities and Mental Illness on Campus: Race, Culture, Religion and Sexual Orientation as Compounding Sources of Stigma” and participated in a symposium presentation titled “Even Kansas isn’t Kansas Anymore: Cultural Competence in the Assessment and Treatment of Campus Mental Illness” at the USC Gould School of Law and Saks Institute for Mental Health Law, Policy and Ethics on March 12-13.

Martin Fiebert, Psychology was the keynote speaker at the first Toronto Domestic Violence Symposium in Toronto, Canada on June 6-7. His presentation was titled “Men as Victims: The History, The Science, The Heroes and the Future.”

Ingrid Martin, Marketing, presented her research titled “Moving from Consumption to Addiction: A Theoretical Perspective on the Impact of Marketing Cues,” co-authored with Michael Kamins and Dante Pirouz. This research was presented at the Marketing and Public Policy Conference in Boston on June 6. Martin also presented a second paper titled “The Role of New Information Sources during the Disaster Cycle” co-authored with Wade E. Martin and David W. Horne at the Marketing and Public Policy Conference.

Melodramatic Imperial Writing from the Sepoy Rebellion to Cecil Rhodes

Neil Hultgren, Associate Professor, English

For Neil Hultgren, the very meaning of the word “melodrama” has changed over time. “It has turned into a cliché. ‘Don’t be so melodramatic’,” Hultgren observed. Hultgren explores the history behind the cliché in his book Melodramatic Imperial Writing from the Sepoy Rebellion to Cecil Rhodes, published this year by Ohio University Press. The book sees 19th-century British melodrama as a vital aspect of literature that underscores the contradictions and injustices of British imperialism. Hultgren hardly sees melodrama as a quaint or outdated kind of writing. “Many American movies, especially the action kind, are infused with melodramatic aesthetics,” Hultgren said. “Where the Victorians wanted overwhelming outbursts of emotion, in American action movies, melodrama takes the form of wisecracks. Victorian theater is often denigrated for its obsession with special effects, but we are just as obsessed with special effects today. That’s a big carryover we don’t often talk about.” Hultgren feels that the survival of melodrama testifies to the continuing intensity of the precarious balance between sincerity and irony. In his book, Hultgren argues that the melodramatic mode enabled Victorian writers to upset narratives of British imperial destiny and racial superiority. Though often seen as a blunt aesthetic tool tainted by its reliance on improbable situations and overwhelming emotions, 19th-century melodrama was actually an important ingredient of British propaganda. Yet, through its impact on many late-Victorian genres outside the theater, melodrama developed a complicated relationship with British imperial discourse. To trace this new and complex connection between British imperialism and the melodramatic mode in late-Victorian writing, Hultgren explores a range of texts from Charles Dickens’ writing about the 1857 Sepoy Rebellion in India to William Ernest Henley’s imperial poetry and Olive Schreiner’s experimental South African fiction. The roots of melodrama can be found just before the 19th century, Hultgren recalled. “It was all the rage for the first 60 years of the 19th century. Although its theatrical popularity began to fade, the melodrama migrated to other genres, ending up in novels and in poetry and in journalism. There were even melodramatic political writings,” he said. “By century’s end, Oscar Wilde and George Bernard Shaw still

Author of the Month-Neil Hultgren

were using melodrama. This book resists the idea promoted by other critics that melodrama had died out by the end of the 19th century.” He added, “The Victorians are lambasted for being sincere, but melodrama represented their most concentrated effort to understand the difficult issue of imperialism. Melodrama can be useful in the way it paints the times in vivid colors. The intensity of melodrama is one of the things the Victorians found interesting.” Hultgren has written on Wilkie Collins, H. Rider Haggard and Wilde, and his research has appeared in Literature Compass and Victorians Institute Journal. He received his B.A. from Augustana College in Rock Island, Ill., and his M.A. and his Ph.D. from the University of Virginia, the latter in 2007. He recently returned from a one-semester sabbatical and is beginning work on a project that explores mysticism and the idea of universal truth in late 19th-century romances.

Learn the Japanese art of origami paper folding as more than 40 origami experts provide hands-on teaching and displays at the annual Origami Festival at CSULB’s Earl Burns Miller Japanese Garden.

The family-friendly event takes place Sunday, July 13, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. This year’s theme of “Ordinary Materials–Extraordinary Art” includes an exhibition of origami made from upcycled magazine pages and bulk advertising mailers. Guests also receive regular origami paper for their creations.

Presenters include CSULB physics professor and origami expert Galen Pickett, who will demonstrate and sell his artwork. Pickett is researching possible scientific and medical applications based on origami folding concepts.

In addition, the garden’s tea house will serve as a gallery of exceptional origami art made by area creators.

Free parking is available in non-metered spaces in Lot 16 across from the garden, located on Earl Warren Drive near CSULB’s Bellflower Boulevard entrance.

Admission is $15 for adults, $10 for seniors, $8 for garden members, $7 for children ages 4-12, and free for children 3 and under. Food is not available at the event.

For more information, visit the Japanese Garden website or call 562/985-8420.

Origami Art

The Staff Council Special Events Committee is planning a host of activities for CSULB staff during the Staff Days of Summer event, Monday-Thursday, Aug. 4-7.

Staff can take part in a scavenger hunt, staff talent show and games night at the University Student Union. Additionally, Staff Day on Aug. 6 features a luncheon, vendor booths, gift drawing and rummage sale at the lawn and Speaker’s Platform area in front of the University Bookstore.

Event T-shirts with staff-designed artwork will be available to order through July 18.

Look for more details and a flyer to come. For more information, e-mail Charleen Rice, or Harvey Hunt or visit the Staff Days of Summer website.

40 Years of Service

Service Awards
Carole Foth

30 Years of Service

Service Awards
Pictured (l-r) are Sarah A. Ramirez-MacCallum, Matthew Black, Michael Fritz, Irma Macias, Richard Haller, Michael Markoski, Walter Gajewski, Michele Scott.
Not pictured: Martin Brenner, Betsy Newell Decyk, Ilee Kaplan, Nouman Khawaja, Wendy Lucas and Helen Diane North.

35 Years of Service

Service Awards
Pictured (l-r) Dale Guerrero, David Nelson, Irene Dorothea Howard, Rosemary Julie Ross, David Sanfilippo and Michael Waddell. Not pictured: Jesse Rodriguez.

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10 Years of Service

Service Awards
First row (l-r): Jon Mechling, Nicole Pricer, Kim Tabari, Julie Decker, Jennifer Layno, Hung Chung, Diane Taylor and Beverly Munson.
Second row (l-r) Ana Cortez, Mishelle Laws, Wendy Lopez, Maria Pilipinas Haban, Khaoi Mady, Raul Navarrette and Daniel Rivera.
Not pictured: Cynthia Anguili, Raquel Arevalo, Rafaela Coral, Aaron Elimelech, Hitoshi Furuya, Martha Garcia, Laura Higgs, Eric Imley, Bianca Jones, John Killen II, Pamela Lewis, Vu Mai, Manuel Maravilla, Lori McCoy, Linda Pena, Curglin Robertson, Gail Smith, Phoupheth Sourinthone, Kirsten Sumpter Pearce, Samuel Thompson, Andrew Vuoso, Marcia Walker and Majid Zahedi.

15 Years of Service

Service Awards
First row (l-r): Heidi Berry, Nancy Eckhous, Gloria Dacanay, Lauren Lu, Enedina Morales, Marfi Barnes and Jo Ann Harris.
Second row (l-r): Alison Kliachko-Trafas, Chris Miles, Robbin Caesar, Homa Danieli, Julie Wilson and Robert Wendt.
Third row (l-r) Sandra Oung, John de la Cuesta, Kandi Dubrall, John Balarosan, Robyn Ames-Woodyard and Frank Wissell.
Fourth row (l-r): Alison Kliachko-Trafas, Chris Miles, Robbin Caesar, Homa Danieli, Julie Wilson and Robert Wendt.
Fourth row (l-r): Natalie Barnard, Ann Radzicki, Mary Jane Lim, Janine Licausi, Valerie Iapello and John McIlrath.
Not pictured: Kathleen Allan, Keya Allen, Eve Baker, Holly Boettner, June Borba, Martha Carey, Lynn Christopher, Marilyn Deegan, Jose Diaz, Rick Gloady, Berta Hanson, Carrie Hernandez, Richard Hernandez, Lucia Hernandez Dorame, Thomas Hockel, Francis Homsany, Jorge Hurtado, Jose Lara, Marcy LeBeau, Deby McGill, Jon Murphy, Maria Ramirez-Tovar, Jose Rodriguez, Josefina Salas, Elizabeth Sanchez, Dale Short, Natalie Sparkman, Hanson Tith, Maria Uriarte, Daniel Valdez, Kit Van Wyk, Duane Watkins and Keith Wong.

20 Years of Service

Service Awards
First row (l-r) Dorisula Green, Shirley Quan-Neang, Brian Carey, Charles Landrum, Mary Ann Messing and Jessica Vo-Nguyen.
Second row (l-r): Evelyn Daliwan, Indah Wantje, Shana Quesada and Arlene Reyes.
Not pictured: Elizabeth Carpenter, Deborah Cason, Stella Corrales, Mark Edrington, Lynne Lawhon, Melrose Martesano, Andrew Milhan, Ameeta Perera, Maria Rivera, Joy Rubin and Kellee Zbornak.

25 Years of Service

Service Awards
First row (l-r): Don Para, Linda Nafarrete, Kimberly Daro, Leah Williams-Daniels, Kevin Hottle, Donna Rhinehart and Olga Anderson.
Second row (l-r) Kay Mascaro, Andrew Espinoza, Robin Ikemi, Gay Arakawa and Brownsyn Braude.
Third row (l-r): Velma Martin, Bruce Vancil, Jesus Lu, Carl Catone, Cindy Masner, La Ronda Heard, Steve La and Stafford Cox.
Not pictured: Olegario Carlos, Abigail Diaz, Loyd Do, Scott Erwin, Pamila Ford, Teodulo Gomez, Catalina Guerrero, Rosa Guzman, Rosalva Guzman, Leanne Hayes, Jose Hernandez, Denitra Jones, Bruce Kosmal, Salvador Pena and Arturo Torres.

The Alumni Association at CSULB will present the 38th season of its Concerts in the Grove series beginning this month with four Saturday night performances at the Hollywood Bowl-type atmosphere of the campus’ Soroptimist House terrace located just off Beach Drive.

Gates open at 6 p.m. for concertgoers who wish to bring a picnic supper prior to the 7:30 p.m. program under the stars.

A popular Concerts in the Grove pastime is the drawing for donated gifts from local merchants. Just a few of the past prizes have included accommodations at fine hotels, gift certificates to acclaimed restaurants, wine tasting and tickets to theatre events.

Proceeds from Concerts in the Grove help finance the CSULB campus grants program and numerous alumni programs throughout the year. Thanks to community generosity, the number of grants and available dollars has steadily grown and the concert series continues its commitment to support the university’s educational programs of excellence.

This year’s dates and bands are:

July 12 — TOMMY TASSI AND THE AUTHENTICS

Concerts in the Grove


Back by popular demand and rated one of the best bands by concert audiences, Tommy Tassi and the Authentics is a highly renowned oldies band that has been entertaining and pleasing audiences of all ages since 1978 with their riveting spirit and energy. They can perform many requests due to their myriad repertoire of the popular hits from the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s. Lead vocalist Tassi, who has an uncanny ability to sound like many of the legendary artists, has guided the band to their popularity and success.

July 26
ELM STREET BAND

Concerts in the Grove



A fan favorite, this Long Beach group boasts alumni of CSULB, Long Beach City College, Millikan High and Stanford Junior High. These four venerable rockers have jammed together for almost 40 years. The Long Beach Press-Telegram has called them “the soundtrack for the City of Long Beach.” If you like Elvis, the Beatles and the Eagles, you will love the Elm Street Band.

Aug. 2
PLATINUM GROOVE

Concerts in the Grove


Making its Concerts in the Grove debut, Platinum Groove is a high-energy variety dance band based around a tight nucleus of professional talented musicians. The Platinum Groove members have toured with and performed on stage with many national acts over the years. The group incorporates a customized mix of material choosing from Motown, big band and oldies. They are sure to put you on your feet and dance the night away.

Aug. 16
STONE SOUL

Concerts in the Grove


Returning to Concerts in the Grove, Stone Soul brings you the finest classic soul and Motown, presented with the passion, artistry and skill that the original performers brought to the stage. No style of music enjoys wider appeal. Timeless hit songs by legendary artists such as Stevie Wonder, the Four Tops, the Temptations, James Brown and many more are sure to please people of all ages.

For additional concert information, call 562/985-7022 or e-mail Janet Gonzales.

CSULB’s George L. Graziadio Center for Italian Studies recently received $100,000 in scholarship endowments to support the program’s new Master of Arts degree.

The first of two $50,000 gifts came from businessman Mario Giannini who set up a scholarship fund in 2012 named for his daughters, the Kyera and Nicole Giannini Scholarship Endowment. The second $50,000 gift was made by CSULB alumnus Mark Cangiano (B.A. Political Science, ’79) in the name of his late wife Sandy Salemi Cangiano (Credential, College of Education, ’83) and is specifically earmarked for graduate students.

George L. Graziadio Chair of Italian Studies’ Clorinda Donato applauded the generous donations as well as the Academic Senate’s approval of the new Master of Arts degree for Italian Studies due to begin this fall with an enrollment of 15.

“We’re all very excited in Italian Studies about the new degree,” said Donato, who joined the Department of Romance/German/Russian Languages and Literatures in 1988. “The goal of this Master of Arts degree is to provide professional-level coursework in the field of Italian Studies. Students want M.A. degrees and CSULB is the place to come.”

The center is committed to offering outstanding programs in Italian language, literature and culture to prepare students for careers in the global arena where strong skills in Italian Studies are an asset for professional success. George and Reva Graziadio brought The Italian Chair Campaign at CSULB to fruition in 1997 with a naming gift and founded The George L. Graziadio Center for Italian Studies in 1998.

Donato believes the new graduate degree benefits both the department and the College of Liberal Arts through the Graziadio Center. “This center makes it possible to do things for both students and the college that might not be possible otherwise,” she explained. “The center brings to campus experts who create knowledge.

“The Graziadio Center has become the voice for Italian Studies on the West Coast,” she added. “The goal of the center is to find ways to work with the community and build bridges for the students.”

Donato pointed out that the $50,000 Mario Giannini donation will join $50,000 already in the Kyera and Nichole Giannini Scholarship Endowment. “That $100,000 will be used to support undergraduate and graduates alike,” Donato explained. “The endowment will produce desperately needed scholarship funds for our graduate students, most of whom work while completing their graduate degrees. Over time, we’ve been building up these scholarship endowments to improve the quality of students’ lives. They are my number one fundraising priority.”

Donato noted that the Cangiano donation will be recognized in the Graziadio Center with a plaque in the name of Cangiano’s late wife Sandy. “It is nice that this is the way Mark Cangiano has chosen to honor the memory of his wife,” she said. “It is something that lives. What better way of remembering some’s life and legacy than to help others achieve their educational goals? I think it’s very powerful.

Mario Giannini on Guitar.
Mario Giannini on Guitar. The Graziadio Center Rocks!

“Everyone is pleasantly surprised by the number of applicants to the master’s program. That is really strong showing for the first year,” she added, noting that the interdisciplinary master’s degree that attracts students from history, art history and comparative literature as well as Italian Studies. “The enrollment represents an interesting cross-section of people. There are students who just graduated and there are students who are returning after other careers. A higher and higher percentage of the B.A. population are seeking master’s degrees. The M.A. is the new B.A.”

Donato feels that the pair of $50,000 gifts represent a ringing endorsement for the Graziadio Center.

“This center was created to be a beacon for Italian Studies at CSULB,” she said. “What these endowments say to me is that the center is succeeding in being that beacon. I credit the strength of the students coming into the program. The Italian-American community is very proud that a graduate program in Italian is being created. That is especially true for the older generation with their memories of discrimination. This is everything Mr. Graziadio wanted for the center.”

Donato sees a bright future for the Graziadio Center.

“I see more attention to the development of scholarship programs,” she said. “They are the key to making it possible for students to pursue their education when they don’t have the money. As education gets more and more expensive, the most deserving and gifted students are often cut out. The most common obstacle to their completion is funding. I also want to see the Graziadio Center continue its outreach with events and lectures such as the Antonioni conference and film festival held in the fall of 2013 and organized by our Enrico Vettore. In the fall of 2014, I look forward to November when we join the English Department’s Stephen Cooper to observe the 75th anniversary of John Fante’s seminal Los Angeles novel Ask the Dust. One of the best things about my job is the chance to work with really innovative and creative people, from the students, to the faculty, to the donors, to community members. That is the cherry on the cake.”

–Richard Manly

The Physics and Astronomy Department at CSULB has the largest number of physics master’s graduates among U.S. master’s granting universities, according to a new report on U.S. collegiate physics program graduation rates by the American Institute of Physics (AIP).

During 2010, 2011 and 2012, the department averaged 12 master’s of science graduates, the highest among 62 physics master’s granting universities.

“This accolade is the result of the faculty’s dedication to student success during the last decade,” said Department Chair Chuhee Kwon. “The department faculty’s goal is to support students to achieve their dream, whether it is to go to a Ph.D. program or to have a career in industry or teaching.”

The graduate students take a combination of core theoretical and practical skills development courses as well as do a research-based thesis with department faculty members, often resulting in students and faculty co-authoring papers in scientific journals.

“It is a demanding program for the students as well as the faculty,” Kwon said, but one that opens doors. More than one-third of CSULB master’s graduates are accepted into Ph.D. programs while others teach at community colleges or high schools or take positions in industry or government.

“The department has been proactively addressing the national needs in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) workforces,” Kwon noted. “Since 2010, we have partnered with the American Physical Society (APS) for the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC) Project to increase the number of qualified high school physics teachers.

Photo of Chuhee Kwon in her office

Chuhee Kwon

“In addition,” she added, “the department was recently selected as an APS Bridge Program site to increase the number of physics Ph.D.s awarded to underrepresented minority students—Hispanic, African and Native Americans.”

The AIP report is available at the AIP website.

School of Art’s Mark Ruwedel, whose ongoing photographic work presents and explores enigmatic images of landscapes impacted by human technologies and cultures, has been named the recipient of two national creative recognitions from two countries.

Most recently, Ruwedel was named the winner of Canada’s 2014 Scotiabank Photography Award. The prize carries with it a $50,000 cash award along with a solo exhibition at Toronto’s Ryerson Image Centre next spring and a full catalogue of Ruwedel’s works, to be published by the renowned German publisher Steidl.

That announcement came just weeks after Ruwedel was named a 2014 Guggenheim Fellow in Photography. In its 90th annual competition for the United States and Canada, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation awarded 177 fellowships to a diverse group of scholars, artists and scientists. Appointed on the basis of prior achievement and exceptional promise, the successful candidates were chosen from a group of almost 3,000.

Originally from Pennsylvania, Ruwedel moved to Montreal in 1980 to pursue studies in photography at Concordia University. Since graduating in 1983, he has been producing work as well as teaching, both at Concordia until 2000 and at CSULB.

“Individually, either of these awards—given in recognition of his lifelong body of work—properly places Mark in the ranks of today’s top artists worldwide,” said Jay Kvapil, CSULB director of the School of Art. “To receive both in the same month truly illustrates the depth and excellence of Mark’s work. Congratulations to Mark on these much-deserved honors. We in the School of Art are proud he is a colleague.”

Ruwedel’s treatments of landscapes are described as subtle and occasionally wickedly amusing. He has photographed projects tracing ancient footpaths and long-since departed railways in the American West, and leftovers from a long-ago nascent nuclear age.

For his series “Crossings,” Ruwedel photographed the landscapes around the borders of California and Mexico, capturing objects cast off as people moved from one life to another—a Guatemalan passport or a baby carrier.

“I am interested in revealing the narratives contained within the landscape and am most attracted to places where the land reveals itself as being both an agent of geological processes and a field of human endeavor,” Ruwedel said of his work.

Mark Ruwedel's photo of Desert Springs
A Mark Ruwedel photo of Desert Springs

“I have been living in Southern California for more than 11 years, and, while photographing extensively in the desert regions that surround Los Angeles, have spent considerable time thinking about how to photograph this vast and complex city,” Ruwedel explained, discussing his current projects. “I have come to understand Los Angeles as being the site of conflict between Arcadian and Utopian impulses. It is also perhaps the ultimate environment in which to study the dynamics of the nature/culture dialectic. As Mike Davis writes in Ecology of Fear, ‘Los Angeles’s wild edge is the place where natural history and social history can sometimes be read as inverted images of each other.’”

In announcing the Guggenheim Fellows, Edward Hirsch, president of the Foundation said, “These artists and writers, scholars and scientists represent the best of the best. Since 1925, the Guggenheim Foundation has always bet everything on the individual, and we’re thrilled to continue the tradition with this wonderfully talented and diverse group. It’s an honor to be able to support these individuals to do the work they were meant to do.”

Guggenheim Fellowships are grants to selected individuals made for a minimum of six months and a maximum of 12 months. Since the purpose of the Guggenheim Fellowship program is to help provide fellows with blocks of time in which they can work with as much creative freedom as possible, grants are made freely and the amounts awarded vary.

–Bethany Price

The Great White Shark is not endangered in the Eastern North Pacific, and, in fact, is doing well enough that its numbers likely are growing, according to an international research team led by University of Florida (UF) researcher George Burgess. The team also included CSULB’s Biological Sciences’ professor Chris Lowe.

Burgess, director of the Florida Program for Shark Research, said the wide-ranging study is good news for shark conservation. The study, published June 16 in the journal PLOS ONE, indicates measures in place to protect the ocean’s apex predator are working.

Scientists reanalyzed three-year-old research that indicated white shark numbers in the Eastern North Pacific were alarmingly low, with only 219 counted at two sites. That study triggered petitions to list white sharks as endangered.

“White sharks are the largest and most charismatic of the predator sharks, and the poster child for sharks and the oceans in general,” said Burgess, whose research program is based at the Florida Museum of Natural History on the UF campus. “If something is wrong with the largest, most powerful group in the sea, then something is wrong with the sea, so it’s a relief to find they’re in good shape.”

“I think it’s exciting to see how much we’ve learned about white sharks in the Eastern Pacific over the last 20 years, but generating population estimates for these animals is incredibly challenging and easily misinterpreted,” said Lowe. “Nevertheless, studies like this provide us with an important benchmark to help us determine how the population may change in the future.

“I think there is growing evidence that the white shark population is increasing in the Eastern Pacific, which is likely due to better fisheries management, water quality and protection for white sharks since the mid-1990s,” he added. “There are still a lot of unanswered questions about how shark behavior will change as the population increases, but seeing more young white sharks off Southern California beaches is definitely a very encouraging sign.”

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) was petitioned to add white sharks to the endangered species list but declined, based on its own research, bolstered by a preview copy of the study by the international team, said Heidi Dewar, a fisheries research biologist. NMFS estimated the Eastern North Pacific population at about 3,000 sharks.

“We determined there were enough animals that there was a low to very low risk of extinction, and in fact, most developments suggest an increasing population,” Dewar said.

Burgess and his colleagues assembled a 10-member team with expertise in all facets of shark biology: demography, population dynamics, life history, tagging and movements, fishery biology and conservation, and mathematical modeling. The team has studied sharks from Florida to California, Alaska to Hawaii, and around the globe.

White sharks can be notoriously difficult to count. They are highly mobile and migratory and group themselves by age, sex and size. Unlike marine mammals, they do not surface to breathe. Some gather at aggregation sites to dine on seals; others stay at sea, dining on fish. Most tagging studies use photographic tags-pictures of unique markings, such as nicks on fins or scars-and those markings can change over time.

Population estimates, however, are important to conservation. Sharks are sensitive to overfishing, both as bycatch for fisherman seeking other fish and as targets for sport or in areas where shark meat is a delicacy. White sharks are protected in many areas internationally, including the west coast of the United States, but because they swim in and out of jurisdictions, they are still vulnerable, and the older study raised concerns.

For their reanalysis, the international team examined the two aggregation sites where the earlier count was obtained, the Farallon Islands and Tomales Point, which attract seals and the sharks that feed on them. They found that the sub-populations at both sites were so fluid, with both resident and transient sharks, that it would not be possible to extrapolate a total population number. To get a better picture of the white shark population in the Eastern North Pacific, the team decided to examine several other known aggregation sites, from Mexico into British Columbia and Alaska.

The team also conducted a demographic analysis to account for all life stages for the sharks at Farallon Islands and Tomales Point and found that the total population is most likely at least an order of magnitude higher-rather than just over 200 sharks, there likely were well over 2,000.

–Cindy Spence / Shayne Schroeder