"Refinement" as a consideration for animal care and use means improvement of housing, handling and experimental procedures to reduce discomfort, pain, fear, stress and suffering. Typical of a researcher's endeavors in this area would be adoption of newer and better, techniques, analgesics and anesthetics. "Refinement" seeks reduction in suffering of the animal.
Clearly refinement also applies to the husbandry of animals and, accordingly, applies to the duties and responsibilities of animal care personnel as well as to the researcher and research staff. This important dual responsibility ties the research and staff to husbandry issues.
As with "replacement" and "reduction," "refinement" requires that the researcher and the animal care staff maintain a close watch over developments in the disciplines. For this there are "search" programs, our next topic.