Geography Conference Abstracts
[ Logo Image: Old map of Planet Earth fading into images of 
California State University, Long Beach ]
      Department of Geography
College of Liberal Arts
1250 Bellflower Boulevard
California State University
Long Beach, CA 90840-1101 USA
 

Students and Alumni

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Mr. Keven Flaherty, graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"Understanding housing needs in San Francisco" to the Association of American Geographers, San Francisco, April 2007

San Francisco's Housing market has shown an unprecedented rise in value over the past fifteen years and this has not only contributed to a change in the structure of the housing market but also in the demography of the City as well. Though city planners have added provisions to the city plan aimed at providing more affordable housing to the general stock they have consistently approved much more housing termed "Market Rate" than they have "Affordable". The intent of this paper is to present how GIS analysis can be used to graphically depict the relationship between the price of housing and the community that lives in it.

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Mr. Keven Flaherty also presented a paper:

"Understanding housing need in San Francisco" to the Los Angeles Geographical Society, Los Angeles, May 2007

San Francisco like the rest of California has experienced an unprecedented rise in housing prices over the last several years. This paper is meant to look at several dimensions of San Francisco's shelter element to investigate how changes in the housing market affect affordability. This paper's findings are then compared to facts on the ground in order to provide a realistic understanding of how housing activism relates to the urban environment.

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Mr. César Espinosa, graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"ArcIMS -- an advanced logistics concept project for strategic mobility 21" to the Los Angeles Geographical Society , Los Angeles, May 2007

The Department of Geography at California State University Long Bbeach was hired to develop a web-based GIS portal as a subtask for Strategic Mobility 21 an Advanced Logistics Concept Project funded by the Department of Defense. The purpose of this web portal is to provide stakeholders with the ability to reotely explore the study area, through visualization and provide them with the capabiity to perform basic spatial analysis functions on features of interest to the project. The web portal was developed using a geographic information system, ESRI's ArcIMS (Internet Mapping Service). Basic GIS functionaity such as identification of features, buffering, zoom in and out, pan, measuring tool, and query builder were implemented on specific data layers and included in this web portal. The developement of the web portal required several steps. (1) Appropriate data layers which include transportation corridors (eg., rail roads, streets, and freeways), airports, cities, military and intermodal facilities within six counties in Southern California were identified. (2) Digital data layers were obtained from various vendors and pricing and licensing of data was arranged. (3) Tranining in ArcIMS and its installation was required. (4) The map layout was designed in close consultation with the funding entities. The end result of this project is an interactive ArcIMS web portal,which contains a number of data layers including a Digital Elevation Model and Satellite Imagery. The map interface of this web portal incorporates scalability. As a user zooms in to larger scales, layers withtheir appropriate labels are displayed. As a user zooms out layers with more detail are removed from the view.

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Mr. César Espinosa also presented a paper, winning second place honors in the CGS Cartography Digital Map Competition:

"Strategic Mobility 21 - An ArcIMS Advanced Logistics Project" to the California Geographical Society , Anza-Borrego, May 2007

The Department of Geography at California State University Long Beach was hired to develop a web-based GIS portal as a subtask for Strategic Mobility 21 an Advanced Logistics Concept Project funded by the Department of Defense. The purpose of this project is to provide stakeholders the ability to remotely explore the study area through visualization, and allow basic GIS functions. Development of the web portal required several steps; (1) Data layers which include transportation corridors (e.g. rail roads, streets, and freeways), airports, cities, military and intermodal facilities within six counties in Southern California were identified. (2) Training in ArcIMS and its installation was required. (3) The map layout was designed in close consultation with the funding entities. The end result of this project is an interactive ArcIMS web portal, which contains data layers including a Digital Elevation Model and Satellite Imagery.

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Mr. Simon Wright also presented a paper, winning first place honors in the CGS Cartography Digital Map Competition:

"Japan's Tectonic Hazards: An Interactive Map" to the California Geographical Society , Anza-Borrego, May 2007

Japan, in terms of the natural hazards it suffers, is arguably one of the most volatile and dangerous places to live in the world. As a result of its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, earthquakes and volcanoes present the Japanese with a very real threat to their everyday way of life. Capturing and visualizing these hazards is the primary concern of this project which ultimately will act as a reference for information on earthquakes and volcanoes in Japan. Taking the form of an interactive digital map, this project was created in ESRI's MapObjects with the aid of Visual Basic 6.0 programming. There were several stages to its completion, including acquiring knowledge of the programming language, collecting & georeferencing the necessary data from the internet, before designing and implementing interactive map functions and effectively visualizing the map features. In essence, the finished product is a historical interactive map of Japanese tectonic hazards.

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Mr. Simon Wright, graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"The volcanoes and earthquakes of Japan: An interactive map" to the Los Angeles Geographical Society , Los Angeles, May 2007

Japan, in terms of the natural hazards it suffers, is arguably one of the most volatile and dangerous places to live in the world. As a result of its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, earthquakes and volcanoes present the Japanese with a very real threat to their everyday way of life. Capturing and visualizing these hazards is the promary concern of this project which ultimately will act as a reference for information on earthquakes and volcanoes in Japan. Taking the form of an interactive digital map, this project was created in ESRI's MapObjects with the aid of Visual Basic 6.0 programming. There were several stages to its completion, including acquiring knowledge of the programming language, collective & georeferencing the necessary data from the internet, before designing and implementing interactive map functions and effectively visualizing the map features. In essence, the finished product is a historical interactive map of Japanese tectonic hazards.

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Mr. Scott Mathers, undergraduate student in geography at CSULB and Jet Propulsion Lab research intern, presented:

"TerraLook: Providing easy, no-cost access to satellite images for busy people and the technologically disinclined" to the California Geographical Society , Anza-Borrego, March 2007

Access to satellite images has been largely limited to science communities with the necessary tools and expertise, even though other communities such as conservation or education, could also benefit from it. This situation has resulted in underutilization of valuable data. Fortunately, these access hurdles can be overcome with tools like TerraLook. Google Earth, for example, has had a tremendous impact on the availability and display of image and vector data. However, it is inappropriate for addressing certain types of questions such as those pertaining to change studies important to conservationists. Bandwidth and image processing options are also may be limited. TerraLook provides a time-series of no-cost georeferenced images in standard jpg format, and bundles this with open source desktop software for utilizing them. Together, these make image analysis capabilities available to people that lack time, or experience to use remote sensing software; or the resources to buy it along with the expensive data.

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Ms. Lisa Pitts, graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"Geography back in High School? Assessing GIS and Technology for Teaching Geography. Case Study: West Covina High School" to the Association of American Geographers, Denver, April 2005

The demand for GIS education and training has grown tremendously. This session seeks papers on the experiences, techniques, and applications of GIS education activities in various education levels (higher education, community college education, and K-12 education). Topics include, but are not limited to: Web- based GIS education activities and techniques, University GIS education programs, Community college GIS education programs, K-12 GIS education lessons, theories in GIS education, community-oriented GIS education activities, the integration of GISystems education and GIScience education, and the future direction of GIS education.

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Ms. Maribel Enriquez, graduate student in geography at CSULB, is second presenting a paper with Dr. Frank Gossette and Mr. James Woods:

"Long Beach, California: America's most diverse city?" to the Association of American Geographers, Denver, April 2005

Following the release of Census 2000 figures on race and ethnicity, USA Today declared Long Beach, California to be the "most diverse city in the country." This assessment was based on comparisons using the papers own Diversity Index, which like the more familiar entropy measures, measures the evenness of representation of Americas major race/ethnicity groups within the enumeration area -- in this case the entire city population. And while the same indexes can be calculated and mapped for smaller areal components (census tracts for example) to show the pattern of differing levels of evenness within urban areas, the results do not adequately measure the spatiality of diversity itself. This paper examines a variety of truly geographic approaches to the measurement and visualization of population diversity.

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Ms. Julienne R. Gard, graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"Healthy cartographies: The social implications of disease mapping," to the Association of American Geographers, Chicago, March 2006

The medical geography sub-discipline has often cited cartography with its ability to interpret health and infirmity in a spatial context as a way to differentiate itself from epidemiology and other health sciences. Pioneers such as John Snow and Jacques May emphasized mapping techniques in order to inform the masses on health patterns, diffusion processes, and their spatial relationships. Through the decades, disease mapping has become essential to comprehensive health geography studies and is used by many organizations at varying scales. This paper looks to three particular characteristics of current health mapping: health cartography's tendency to initiate public health regulation, to increase general awareness, and to redefine disease in reaction to its graphic representation. In the process, specific social implications result.

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Ms. Julienne R. Gard, presented a paper:

"Creating health in a Native American sweat lodge: The production of an alternative healing space," to the Association of American Geographers, Denver, April 2005

Three decades ago non-natives attending a Native American sweat in a sweat lodge would have been unprecedented. With alternative medicine's popularization in recent years, however, traditional healing is currently attracting people of all races, ages, and sexes. The Native American sweat lodge is one such space, one offered in a variety of settings. These specific landscapes may be analyzed vis-à-vis dual contexts; firstly as therapeutic sites, and secondly as ones of tourism. The study's purpose is to analyze the principal question: How and in what ways are these alternative health care practices constructing and producing healing spaces?

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Ms. Gard also presented a paper:

"Dengue Fever Among Australia's Aboriginals: Traditional versus Western Prevention and Response Methods," to the Association of American Geographers, Philadelphia, March 2004

The recent 2003 Winter-Spring outbreak of dengue fever in Cairns, Australia and surrounding areas affected the urban white population as well as the Mossman Gorge, Tjapukai, and Yirrganydji aboriginal communities. Factors such as uneven state funding, negative attitudes toward indigenous peoples, and spatial inequities (i.e. proximity to facilities) seem to perpetuate the ever-growing disparity between indigenous and non- indigenous healthcare. As a result, aboriginal community members must resort to their own methods of preventive intervention and reactive measures. Primary accounts from aboriginal community members, non-indigenous citizens, and public health officials examine the structure of the 2003 outbreak and offer some insight as to the future of tropical disease control among Queensland's indigenous population.

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Ms. Denise Behrens, alumna in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"A comparative geographic analysis of European Union and United States governmental foreign aid" to the Association of American Geographers, San Francisco, April 2007

In many respects, official foreign aid granted by the European Union exhibits important contrasts from that of the United States, most notably in terms of recipient nations, the forms and amounts of aid given, and stated objectives and strategies. Many of these transatlantic differences appear to have their origins in varying foreign policies, geopolitical interests, and historical linkages, among other factors, and can furthermore have a significant impact on the affected nations. Therefore, this paper will conduct a comprehensive examination of foreign aid granted by the United States and the European Union (primarily at the supranational level) from a geographic perspective. After ascertaining and analyzing the specific similarities and differences between European and American aid, some possible reasons for the spatial patterns revealed will be discussed. Finally, it will briefly speculate on the future of foreign aid from the European Union and the United States, as well as some of the potential repercussions of both current actions and planned initiatives.

Ms. Denise Behrens, undergraduate major in geography at CSULB, presented a paper:

"The lost constellations of European celestial cartography," to the Association of American Geographers, Denver, April 2005

The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in the constellations that have appeared on European celestial maps, with a special focus on the "lost" constellations found on some of these maps. Before the adoption of 88 standardized constellations with specific boundaries in the early 20th century, European celestial maps were often characterized by numerous additions of new and sometimes unusual constellations with every edition. While some of these constellations have remained in use until the present day, others have not been so fortunate. The result of this is that there have been dozens of relatively unknown constellations that have traversed some of the most famous celestial maps in history, yet are barely remembered today. Therefore, this paper will discuss the origins and short tenures of these forgotten constellations. It will discover which of these constellations have survived the test of time, while others have vanished from todays star maps. Finally, it will postulate possible reasons for the demise of these constellations, despite the adoption of some of their contemporaries.

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Ms. Behrens also presented another paper to the AAG back when she was still a math major, before "we got to her":

"Los Angeles Chinatown and its New Business Improvement District," to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002

This study will discuss the current conditions of the Los Angeles Chinatown area, as well as the effects of the recently established Los Angeles Chinatown Business Improvement District. Recently, with the assistance of special financial assessments, some members of the community have organized various programs in an attempt to attract patronage to Chinatown. Although these programs may help, many still feel Chinatown faces challenges in its attempt to revitalize, such as strong business competition from other nearby Asian communities, as well as its own local problems, such as its proximity to crime and what many visitors consider to be a deteriorating outward appearance. Therefore, the main question that will be considered in this study is, can this business improvement district idea successfully revitalize Chinatown? Or is this effort too little, too late? These questions as well as many other issues will be discussed in this report.

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Ms. Leslie Edwards, Ms. Doreen Jeffrey, Mr. Andrew Huston, and Ms. Leeta Latham, undergraduate students in geography at CSULB presented a paper:

"Oakland Berkeley Firestorm 1991" to the Southern California Conference on Undergraduate Research, Irvine, November 2003

The Oakland Berkeley firestorm of October 20, 1991 was of unprecedented proportion and engulfed 2.5 square miles of the East Bay Hills. It was responsible for 25 deaths and over 150 injuries. Over 5,100 people were left homeless and 3,469 housing units were damaged or destroyed in an eight hour time period. This fire was one of the most costly in U.S. history. This project was a collaborative project combining research done in two separate geography courses at California State University, Long Beach. One course of study involved Hazards and Risk Assessment and the project entailed the collection of various forms of data relating to the fire's physical dynamics, human impacts and social responses. These facts were published on the World Wide Web in an interactive format at http://www.csulb.edu/~djeffrey/hazards. California State University, Chico students Mike Altman, Chris Bujalski, Maxine Madrigal, Mike Parenteau, Lisa Perry, and Jack Riddle created the maps appearing in the web format. The second course of study involved Cartography and the presentation of the physical dynamics of the fire spread presented in a series of maps incorporated into a video format with live video footage, photos, and music accompaniment. The web page explains the importance of fire mitigation, the presentation board maps show the extent and speed of this hazard and the video illustrates these aspects in a vivid, emotional way.

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Mr. Brian R. Sims, graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented a paper:

"Centralizing Corporate Assets with GPS Technology at Southern California Edison," to the 23rd Annual ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, July 2003

Southern California Edison's (SCE) telecommunications division Edison Carrier Solutions (ECS) is developing a pilot GIS/GPS asset management system. The implementation of this proposed system will aid the design, construction, and maintenance of ECS's fiber-optic network. Data collection will take place with GPS units, and data storage will be on a central server running Oracle8i. GIS users can access data through ArcView and CAD users access through AutoCAD. This paper will cover how obtaining GPS-based geographic data and storing the data in a centralized server will benefit ECS's analysis and design of its network.

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Mr. Brian R. Sims, graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented a paper:

"Assessment of Interpolation Methods and Spatial Resolutions on Urban Digital Surface Models Derived from LiDAR," to the Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, March 2003

This paper will explain the inner-connections between interpolation algorithms and spatial resolution on the representation of urban surface models derived from raw, first-return LiDAR data. Three interpolation methods are used to create raster DSMs (digital surface model) of the University of Southern California : Inverse Distance Weighting, Spline, and Kriging. Each interpolation method will be created at five spatial resolutions: 0.5m, 1m, 2.5m, 5m, and 10m. A combination of accuracy statistics (root mean square error (RMSE), standard deviation and mean absolute difference) are used to assess which combination of interpolation method and spatial resolution create the most accurate representation. The higher the spatial resolution the larger the data storage requirements and processing power required to analyze the data. Identification of how interpolation methods and spatial resolutions effect the representation of surfaces will help users efficiently process their data.

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Mr. Brian R. Sims, graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented a paper with Dr. Suzanne P. Wechsler, Dr. Yuet-Ling O'Connor (Pasadena City College), Mr. Peter Wohlgemuth (US Department of Forestry), and Messrs. Brian R. Sims and Aziz Bakkoury (graduate students in geography at CSULB) presented:

"Centroid Hunting: The truth is out there_or is it?," to the Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, March 2003

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are frequently used in assessment of natural resources. Digital Elevation Models are a common GIS data source for terrain representation and analysis. Slope and aspect are topographic parameters frequently derived directly from DEMs. Numerous algorithms exist to compute slope and aspect from an elevation grid (Burrough and McDonnell, 1998; Carter, 1992; 1990, Horn, 1981, and Zevenbergen and Thorne, 1987). This research evaluated and quantified the accuracy of the computer representation of elevation and derived topographic parameters (slope and aspect) by GISs. High accuracy Global Positioning Systems (GPS) were used to ground truth elevation as represented in a 10m resolution USGS DEM. Centroids of the 10m grid cells from the Glendora, CA 7.5-minute Level 2 USGS DEM were used as ground truth locations. Issues associated with the navigation to and location of centroid points, subgrid variability and GPS accuracy will be presented. Field measurements of elevation, slope and aspect collected in the Bell 1 research watershed located in the San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) were compared with GIS- derived values. The accuracy of the computer's representation of elevation, slope and aspect is a function of (a) DEM grid resolution, (b) topographic complexity, and (c) the algorithms utilized by the GIS to compute slope and aspect.

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Messrs. Brian Sims, an active graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, and David McCune, undergraduate student and research assistant in the RESAC, presented:

"Diurnal live fuel moisture change in Adenostoma faciculatum (Chamise) in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California," to the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, in San Bernardino, September 2002.

This paper will discuss the results of and protocol used during field research to quantify Live Fuel Moisture (LFM) changes of Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) during a twelve hour time period. Fuel moisture is an important variable in predicting the rate of spread of fire and is calculated on both dead and life fuels. Much research has been conducted on the fuel moisture of dead material and is commonly accepted as an adequate predictor. Current studies are investigating the importance of life fuel moisture may have on fire hazard. These studies are measuring the seasonal variations of LFM on several hard chaparral species in the Santa Monica Mountains. This study is an attempt to quantify the diurnal variations rather than seasonal changes.

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Mr. Brian Sims, an active graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, will present an illustrated paper:

"Assessment of Interpolation Methods and Spatial Resolutions on Urban Digital Surface Models Derived from LiDAR," to the Association of American Geographers, in New Orleans, March 2003.

This paper will explain the inner-connections between interpolation algorithms and spatial resolution on the representation of urban surface models derived from raw, first-return LiDAR data. Three interpolation methods are used to create raster DSMs (digital surface model) of the University of Southern California : Inverse Distance Weighting, Spline, and Kriging. Each interpolation method will be created at five spatial resolutions: 0.5m, 1m, 2.5m, 5m, and 10m. A combination of accuracy statistics (root mean square error (RMSE), standard deviation and mean absolute difference) are used to assess which combination of interpolation method and spatial resolution create the most accurate representation. The higher the spatial resolution the larger the data storage requirements and processing power required to analyze the data. Identification of how interpolation methods and spatial resolutions effect the representation of surfaces will help users efficiently process their data.

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Mr. Sims also presented:

"Centralizing Corporate Assets with GPS Technology at Southern California Edison," to the Twenty-second Annual ESRI International User's Conference, in San Diego during July 2002.

Southern California Edison's (SCE) telecommunications division Edison Carrier Solutions (ECS) is developing a pilot GIS/GPS asset management system. The implementation of this proposed system will aid the design, construction, and maintenance of ECS's fiber-optic network. Data co^Zcompute slope and aspect.

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obtaining GPS-based
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centralized server will
benefit ECS's analysis and design of its network.
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Mr. Aziz Bakkoury, graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented a paper with Dr. Suzanne P. Wechsler, Dr. Yuet-Ling O'Connor (Pasadena City College), Mr. Peter Wohlgemuth (US Department of Forestry), and Messrs. Brian R. Sims and Aziz Bakkoury (graduate students in geography at CSULB) presented:

"Centroid Hunting: The truth is out there_or is it?," to the Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, March 2003

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are frequently used in assessment of natural resources. Digital Elevation Models are a common GIS data source for terrain representation and analysis. Slope and aspect are topographic parameters frequently derived directly from DEMs. Numerous algorithms exist to compute slope and aspect from an elevation grid (Burrough and McDonnell, 1998; Carter, 1992; 1990, Horn, 1981, and Zevenbergen and Thorne, 1987). This research evaluated and quantified the accuracy of the computer representation of elevation and derived topographic parameters (slope and aspect) by GISs. High accuracy Global Positioning Systems (GPS) were used to ground truth elevation as represented in a 10m resolution USGS DEM. Centroids of the 10m grid cells from the Glendora, CA 7.5-minute Level 2 USGS DEM were used as ground truth locations. Issues associated with the navigation to and location of centroid points, subgrid variability and GPS accuracy will be presented. Field measurements of elevation, slope and aspect collected in the Bell 1 research watershed located in the San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) were compared with GIS- derived values. The accuracy of the computer's representation of elevation, slope and aspect is a function of (a) DEM grid resolution, (b) topographic complexity, and (c) the algorithms utilized by the GIS to compute slope and aspect.

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Ms. Romey Hagen and Mr. Aziz Bakkoury, active graduate students in geography at CSULB and research associates at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented a paper with Dr. Christopher T. Lee:

"Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center: A Regional Earth Science Applications Center," to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002

This poster seeks to present the Southern California Center for managing fire hazards at the urban-wildland interface to address a continuing regional problem threatening life and property in the United States. This center wss developed by a consortium of universities, research organizations, and the main fire fighting agencies of the southern California region, including the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The urban-wildlands interface is an area of great concern throughout the nation when seeking fire hazard mitigation. In Southern California, where wildlands vegetation is dominated by chaparral, a fire-adapted ecosystem, city boundaries and suburbs press against wildland vegetation, homes are intermixed within wildlands areas, and islands of wildland vegetation exist within metropolitan areas. The expanding urban-wildland interface further increases the risk of loss due to wildfire. The Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center uses the latest remote sensing instrumentation, both airborne and orbital, together with field and map data to attack the growing problem of fires in Southern California by addressing the need for timely, spatially continuous information delivered to the user community in usable formats. Previous work of consortium members provide the initial framework for the incorporation of new data sources and the development of new analysis techniques and database management tools, in close consultation with the firefighting community, to define and produce timely products that can be used as general planning and fire hazard prediction tools and potentially as inputs to fire behavior models.

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Mr. Michael McDaniel, graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper with Ms. Micaela Lukasser, student at the University of Salzburg, Austria, entitled:

"International Cooperation with GIS," to the Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, March 2003

During spring semester 2002 students from California State University, Long Beach and the University of Salzburg, Austria traveled to each other's country as part of the course "International Cooperation with GIS." The course was designed so that the students participated in a service project designed and managed by the host university, applying Geographic Information Science and their own perspectives and expertise to matters of local concern. This poster describes the projects undertaken by the students and their results.

In Long Beach, the students employed a vector-based analysis of 2000 census data on behalf of the Aquarium of the Pacific to examine its visitor/membership profile and make recommendations on applying limited advertising resources to best advantage. Among the findings, the project identified an under-representation of aquarium patronage in census tracts with predominantly Latino population and recommended expanding Spanish- language advertisements and programs.

In Salzburg the students examined several issues affecting Western Austria's Hohe Tauern National Park, the Alps' largest nature reserve. One aspect of the project, using a raster-based analysis of cost-distance or friction model, determined which areas of the park are least accessible and so, all else equal, most appropriately designated special conservation areas off-limits to visitors.

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Mr. Shaun Healy, an active graduate student in geography at CSULB and research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented:

"Cultural Geography: An Experiment in Hypermedia," to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002

In this poster, I examine the possible relationship between geography as a discipline and hypermedia as a form of geographic communication. Hypermedia represent a multi-layered landscape that often defies perceived tendencies and enforces radically different approaches in the pursuit of removing the dazzling appearance of our own fixed placement in time. Geography blends a unique combination of multiple dimensions studies and political discourse; a simulacrum of mediated objects that possess identity and interconnected metaphor. Hypermedia creates similar metaphors of spatial and political discourse through the filter of a high-order design process. Both seek to examine the dualistic nature of landscape (built-form and representation) and the metaphers that are found amongst the "tangled verdure" of Sestini's cultural geography regressions. On the surface, each represents a particular element of culture and a theoretical discourse. Further examination may help to qualify their particular relationship in a common mode of interpreted results.

As a graphical representation, a flow diagram and supplementary information will illustrate the structural relationship involved in the acquisition of geographical knowledge and the behaviors appropriate for navigating in the hypermedia experience.

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Ms. Erin Stockenberg, who recently completed her master's degree in geography at CSULB and was a research associate at the Southern California Wildfire Hazards Center, presented a paper with Dr. Suzanne Wechsler:

"Environmental and Natural Resource Applications of GIS: Course Development," to the International Conference on GIS Education, in San Bernardino, June 2001.

This presentation will describe the initiation and development of a course on environmental and natural resource applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The objectives of the course, methodology and procedures used in the development of course materials, and skills acquired through the assignments will be presented. The methodology utilized could be applied to the development of other GIS application courses. This presentation will benefit both faculty and students interested in expanding GIS course offerings and developing GIS laboratory materials that enhance skills and utilize relevant data.

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Ms. Valery Müller, a recent alumna of the graduate program in geography at CSULB, presented a paper, entitled:

"Satellites, Census, and the Quality of Life," to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002.

This study analyzed the potential to predict Quality of Life levels in urban environments in Southern California. Twenty-six census variables were used to determine the socio-economic structure in the study area. Structural variables, consisting of amenities and nuisances as well as the biomass index NDVI, were extracted from satellite images, and the distance of each enumeration district to the structural variables was calculated. Data obtained from two different spatial resolutions were compared to evaluate possible differences in the findings. Multiple regression models were employed to test the predictive potential of the structural variables from the satellite imagery. Results indicated that the ability of the structural variables to predict Quality of Life factors is limited. There was considerable variation in the predictive power between census years and between levels of resolution. Furthermore, a comparison of results obtained from data at different spatial resolutions did not result in better predictive power.

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Ms. Valery Müller, currently an active graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper, entitled:

"Monitoring Urban Growth with Remote Sensing in Montego Bay, Jamaica," to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002.

The last time the 4000 square miles of Jamaica were completely covered by aerial photographs was in 1991. Comprehensive maps were made 20 years ago. With new technologies, such as commercially available 1-meter resolution satellite images, data are more readily accessible. Satellite images as well as aerial photography from 1991 will be compared with recently acquired high resolution imagery to determine changes in land cover for the Montego Bay area.

Montego Bay is the largest urban center of St. James Parish, with a population of over 83,000 and an estimated annual growth rate of about 2% (1997). Tourism has emerged as the dominant economic activity, which created significant employment opportunities and stimulated urban development. Despite all efforts, pressure has been placed on the supply of housing, and the growth in squatter settlements on the outskirts of Montego Bay is accelerating rapidly. The comparison of remote sensing data from ten years ago and today will help determine the extent of urban sprawl by detecting areas that changed from undeveloped to developed land.

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Ms. Müller, also presented a paper, entitled:

"Using GIS in Urban Planning: Updating 27 General Plan Maps," to the Urban Regional Information Systems Association (URISA), Montego Bay, Jamaica 9-12 September 2001

In 1999, the local regional planning authority, the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), ordered the update of the General Plan Land Use Maps of all cities in Southern California. This project deals with a subregion in Los Angeles County, the Gateway Cities. Each city has its own classification system of urban land uses, which were transformed into one uniform classification system. The result was a database with each city's intended land use, and a map to visualize different goals of the cities. It serves both SCAG and the cities to coordinate the future development within the Gateways Cities region.

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In addition, Ms. Müller presented another paper, entitled:

"Using GIS to Update 27 General Plan Maps," to the Western Geography Student Conference, Portland, OR, 2-4 February 2001

A year ago, the regional planning authority Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) ordered the update of the General Plans of all cities in Southern California. Part of the General Plan outlines the broad physical structure of a city in the future in terms of land use, such as residential, industrial, and commercial land use, open space, transportation, water, public facilities, etc. A map is part of the General Plan, which shows the planned land uses within the city. Twenty-seven cities in Southern California form the "Gateway Cities" region. Each city has its own classification system of urban land uses. These different systems were transformed into one uniform classification system. Not only several differences in classification systems needed to be considered, also the data input varied from city to city: some cities provided hand drawn hardcopy maps, others had digital GIS data, some cities made parcel data available, others only block data. One consistent system was created by using already existent digital spatial data from previous updates, which were combined with the provided attribute data and new GIS data. Numerous software programs were combined to process the data, for example Arc View, Arc/Info, Excel, and more. The result was a database with each city's intended land use, and a map to visualize different goals of the cities. It serves both SCAG and the cities to coordinate the future development within the "Gateway Cities" region.

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Ms. Müller came to CSULB as an undergraduate exchange student from Austria last year and decided to stay here to pursue a master's degree.

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Mr. Edward G. Huefe, currently an active graduate student in geography at CSULB, presented a paper, entitled:

"Mi Barrio Loco: Dot-Com Gentrification and Musical Resistance in San Francisco's Mission District," to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002

This study examines the role of music as a form of protest and resistance to gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District. The Mission, founded by the Spanish in 1776, is one of California's oldest barrio communities. In addition to the traditionally dominant Latino population, various immigrant and artistic elements have also contributed to an eclectic and dynamic urban environment. The dot-com boom of the past decade has brought a veritable cultural invasion of high-income professionals and development minded real estate speculators into the Mission. Extreme rent hikes and speculative evictions have resulted in the displacement of many poor and minority long-time residents and small business owners. Community resistance to this trend has begun to organize on many social, political, and artistic fronts, including musical resistance. A popular local Latin rhythm/hip-hop band, Los Mocosos, has recently documented and dramatized this struggle in song. Another form of resistance comes from traditional mariachi musicians who stubbornly continue to make their rounds in the yuppie filled sushi bars and haute cuisine eateries that have replaced many neighborhood "mom & pop" restaurants. In both instances, music is centrally implicated in the contesting of sonic space as one battle-line of a larger culture war for the identity of the community.

Mr. Huefe recently completed his M.A. in geography at CSULB under the supervision of Dr. James Curtis. He is presently a Ph.D. student at Arizona State University, Tempe.

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Mr. Huefe also presented:

"Across the Borderline: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands as Locus of Transformation in North American Popular Music," to the Association of American Geographers, New York, in late February and early March 2001

This paper continues an ongoing examination of the image content found in twentieth century popular music of the United States, with the goal of discovering perceptions commonly held by North Americans towards the U.S.- Mexico border region. Through the power of its imagery, music simultaneously gives voice to our existing world-view and reshapes this view into new formulations. Both lyrical and musical imagery is considered in the analysis of songs that make reference to the border region. Initial work has revealed a fragmentary picture consisting of four principal themes: 1) old Mexico and the old west, 2) outlaw myths and the border sanctuary, 3) border-towns as Mexicoland/sin-city tourist destinations, and 4) songs of the migrant worker saga. Within the corpus of songs representing each theme, antithetical currents have also emerged. These dissident views present divergent and changing interpretations that reveal the border as a dynamic place undergoing evolution within the popular consciousness. The presentation focuses on the evolving symbolic significance and transformational expectations associated with the act of crossing the line. Changing dichotomies of good/evil, freedom/oppression, and hope/despair are revealed in the music of various popular artists including Ry Cooder, Woody Guthrie, Robert Earl Keen, Los Lobos, Steve Miller, Marty Robbins, Bruce Springsteen, Texas Tornados, and others.

Keywords: geography-music, place perception, borderlands region.

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Mr. Lewis Francis, Ms. Romey Hagen, Mr. Shaun Healy, and Mr. Steve Newberg, active graduate students in geography at CSULB, presented a paper, entitled:

"In the Line of Fire: A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship between Aspect and Fire History in the Santa Monica Mountains, 1925-1997," to the Western Geography Student Conference, Portland, OR, 2-4 February 2001

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the aspect of the terrain and the number of times the land has burned. This study will utilize geographic information system (GIS) technology to investigate the relationship between fire incident frequency and aspect.

Analysis involved comparing an aspect model, created from USGS 7.5 min. topographic quadrangle DEMs covering the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (NRA) in Southern California, and a database consisting of fires in the area that have been mapped between the years 1925-1997. Aspect was calculated using ESRI's Spatial Analyst extension in ArcView.

Fire analysis was developed utilizing a fire history database combined from the Department of Water and Power, LA County Fire Department, Ventura County Fire Department, and GeoCart Systems, respectively. In the Santa Monica Mountains, the areas of burn incidence ranged from burned once to burned nine times. The nine burn incidence classes were then merged to the derived aspect to isolate an aspect of areas burned.

The percentage of each sector burned was determined by dividing the number of directional cells within each class by the total number of cells found in each burn incidence. A 'firerose' representing the 8 sectors (i.e. north, northeast, east) was then developed for each burn incidence. ERDAS Imagine software was used to create a 3-D "flythrough" of the Santa Monica Mountains showing the current total of burn incidence areas.

This study was created from data sources of other ongoing research projects concerned with wildland brushfire hazards. The center is directly involved with the production of educational materials designed to promote undergraduate training in remote sensing and opportunities for graduate level research. The Southern California Wildfire Hazard Center (SCWHC), which is a NASA-funded Regional Earth Science Application Center (RESAC), is located in the Geography Department at California State University, Long Beach.

Keywords: Aspect, Brushfire, DEM, GIS, RESAC, Santa Monica Mountains

The four authors are graduate students in the Geography Master's Degree Program at CSULB and work in the Southern California Wildfire Hazard Center.

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Ms. Aimée R. Mindes, recent M.A. from CSULB, presented a paper as secondary co-author (with Dr. Jim Curtis), entitled:

"Urban Structure in Ensenada and La Paz, Mexico" to the upcoming Association of American Geographers meeting in New York City in late February and early March.

Based on detailed land use surveys, this study systematically compares the urban structure of Ensenada and La Paz, the third and fourth largest cities in Baja California. Both urban centers share common elements conducive to comparative analysis, including similarity in age, population size, growth rates, locational attributes, as well as economic characteristics. The proportional composition of land use activities, their intracity distributions, and the distinguishing landscape character of the two cities are compared and contrasted. How the cities' internal structure conforms to the most widely accepted morphological models that have been generated to depict Latin American and Mexican border city structure is assessed. Preliminary findings indicate that significant differences exist between the two cities, especially in tourist, commercial, and industrial land uses.

Ms. Mindes is now a full-time instructor in the Physical Sciences Department at Rio Hondo College, in Whittier.

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Mr. Tom Frazier, who earned his M.A. from CSULB and is now serving as one of our part-time faculty while working on his doctoral dissertation at the Geographisches Institut, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, is presenting:

"Security Habitation in the New Berlin: Landscapes of Defensible Residential Space in Berlin's Newly Built Urban Environment" to the Association of American Geographers, Philadelphia, March 2004.

The urban built environment of the city of Berlin, Germany has undergone a significant transformation in the years since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Berlin's structural changes, primarily to its former capital city function, have attracted a population composed of diplomats and politicians, as well as a cultural and economic elite, with an above average need for security. The influx of a "high security population" has resulted in a market response for high-end residential development with integrated security and service. The security habitation phenomenon is also part of the overall trend towards the securitization of Berlin's public and private developed urban spaces, and is an aspect of the globalization of residential development forms in the post-modern city. The purpose for implementing and employing residential security strategies to defend residential space is in an attempt to safeguard human habitation against (real or perceived) harm or invasion. Included in Berlin's new urbanscape development, are numerous residential projects that have incorporated the concepts of securitized defensible space into their design, placement, construction, and management. The security aspect of Berlin's newly built residential environment can be analyzed in an organized and systematic way by employing a method called the Security Habitation Hierarchy. The Security Habitation Hierarchy is a method for identifying and categorizing the varied forms, devices, and tools of residential security, and is divided into three levels: The protection of one's individual self at the point of habitation; securitization of the housing unit or residential building; and the defensive design, either natural or man-made, of the residential neighborhood or development. The three levels of the Security Habitation Hierarchy method identify, organize, and describe the physical imprint and effects residential security has had on new Berlin's geographic urbanscape.

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Mr. Tom Frazier also presented:

"The Security Habitation Hierarchy: Physical Manifestation of Residential Security on Southern California's Geographic Urbanscape" to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 2002.

This paper attempts to provide an organized and systematic way of looking at the geographic effect of residential security by using a method called the Security Habitation Hierarchy. The Security Habitation Hierarchy is a method for identifying and categorizing the physical imprint, on the urban landscape, made by the varied forms, devices, and tools of residential security. The implementation and use of residential security employ numerous devices in the attempt to safeguard human habitation against harm or invasion. In Southern California residential security can be viewed almost as a lifestyle, and provides the paper with many examples for securing an abode, from window bars to gated communities. The Security Habitation Hierarchy is divided into three levels: The protection of one's individual self at the point of habitation; securitization of the housing unit or residential building; and the defensive design, either natural or man-made, of the residential neighborhood or development. The first level, the basic protection of one's self, is primarily a behavioral aspect of security habitation, but has a definite physical effect. The second level is the securitization of a housing unit or residential building utilizing site and building design, with access to entry the major focus. The third level of the hierarchy recognizes the impact of street and site design, as well as the local geography and topography directly affecting safety and accessibility. The three levels of the Security Habitation Hierarchy identify, organize, and describe the physical effect residential security has on the geography of the urban landscape.

Mr. Frazier is currently a Ph.D. student in the Geographisches Institut, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, working under Dr. Marlies Schulz, who spoke on campus in April 2001. During 2002-03, while doing the field work for part of his dissertation, he is serving as a part-time faculty member in our department.

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Mr. Frazier also presented:

"Tracking the traces of division: A survey of the remnants of the Berlin Wall as a relict boundary on the urban landscape" to the California Geographical Society, San Diego, May 2000.

The Berlin Wall was a physical barrier that divided a militarily occupied capital city into east and west from 1961 to 1989. The superimposed boundary split streets, neighborhoods, a city, and a nation in half. Physical traces of the once formidable barrier between Communist East and Capitalist West are in evidence throughout central Berlin, constituting a relict boundary. A relict boundary is one that has been abandoned, but is still marked by differences in the landscape that developed during its lifetime. This type of boundary can be found in the form of physical remnants and vestiges of demarcation and fortification employed at the border, or surrounding the border area, and left behind after the border ceased to function. It is important to know that the Berlin Wall was not just one edifice but actually a series of physical barriers erected in a border security zone for the primary purpose of preventing escape from East to West. The design of this investigative study of the Berlin Wall as a relict boundary was threefold: 1.) To determine exactly where the Wall was placed and why; 2.) To describe what constituted the Wall; and 3.) To reveal which remnants of the Wall remain and what effects they have on Berlin's cityscape. The traces and remnants that were looked for were those components that comprised the morphology of the Berlin Wall. A field survey for a recent CSULB MA thesis was conducted along an approximate ten-kilometer long representative course of the Wall, through the center of Berlin, documenting whatever traces and remnants that remain on the urban landscape. Though the Berlin Wall may no longer function as an effective physical and political barrier to movement, it has left a significant and lasting physical imprint on the urban landscape of the city of Berlin.

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Mr. Michael Jenkins, together with Dr. Frank Gossette, presented:

"Visualizing Flood Hazard with GIS," to the Association of American Geographers, Pittsburgh, April 2000.

The potential for flood risk in the local community was estimated using data from various sources and different scales. Macro-model flood zone maps produced by FEMA were related to detailed aerial-survey elevations for every residential structure in the City. The resulting parcel-level flood hazard estimates were used by individual homeowners in obtaining appropriate flood insurance. Analyzing these data at different scales and producing visual displays that were comprehensible to the general public was a challenge. This paper looks at the use of GIS to solve these modeling and visualization issues.

Mr. Jenkins now does GIS work for the City of Lakewood.

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