Warning: Unknown: Unable to allocate memory for pool. in Unknown on line 0

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/index.php on line 17

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-blog-header.php on line 12

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-load.php on line 29

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-config.php on line 90

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 21

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 22

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 23

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 64

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 65

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/functions.php on line 8

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 66

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 67

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 68

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 69

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/pomo/mo.php on line 10

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 10

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/pomo/mo.php on line 11

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/load.php on line 327

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/load.php on line 390

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 82

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 99

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 105

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 106

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 107

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 108

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 109

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 110

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 111

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 112

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 113

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 114

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 115

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 116

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 117

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 118

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 119

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 120

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 121

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 122

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 123

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 124

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 125

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 126

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 127

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 128

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 129

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 130

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 131

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 132

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 133

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 134

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 25

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 28

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 31

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 34

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 37

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 135

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 136

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 137

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 138

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 139

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 140

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 141

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 142

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 143

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 144

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 145

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 146

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 185

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 149

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/lib/iCalcreator.class.php on line 48

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 151

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 152

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 153

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 154

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 155

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 156

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 157

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 158

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/index.php on line 26

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/index.php on line 27

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/admin_settings.php on line 2

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/admin_settings.php on line 3

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/admin_settings.php on line 4

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/admin_settings.php on line 5

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/awesome-flickr-gallery-plugin/admin_settings.php on line 6

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/breadcrumb-navxt/breadcrumb_navxt_admin.php on line 27

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/breadcrumb-navxt/breadcrumb_navxt_admin.php on line 29

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/comprehensive-google-map-plugin/comprehensive-google-map-plugin.php on line 72

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/comprehensive-google-map-plugin/comprehensive-google-map-plugin.php on line 73

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/comprehensive-google-map-plugin/comprehensive-google-map-plugin.php on line 74

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/comprehensive-google-map-plugin/comprehensive-google-map-plugin.php on line 75

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/comprehensive-google-map-plugin/comprehensive-google-map-plugin.php on line 76

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/comprehensive-google-map-plugin/comprehensive-google-map-plugin.php on line 77

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/knr-author-list-widget/knrAuthorListWidget.php on line 10

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/main.php on line 27

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/model.php on line 3

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.base.php on line 3

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.base.php on line 4

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.options.php on line 2

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.base.php on line 5

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/model.php on line 4

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.themes.php on line 2

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.collection_controller.php on line 2

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.themes.php on line 3

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.theme.php on line 2

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.component.php on line 2

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/model.php on line 5

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.content_handlers.php on line 3

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/model.php on line 6

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/simple-lightbox/includes/class.template_tags.php on line 3

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 36

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 37

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 38

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 39

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 40

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 41

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 42

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 43

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/wordpress-wiki.php on line 46

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-wiki/lib/wpw_wikiparser.php on line 2

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 197

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 201

Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 202

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/functions.php on line 2735

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 279

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-settings.php on line 293

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/themes/ut/functions.php on line 22

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/all-in-one-event-calendar.php on line 179

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/co-authors-plus/co-authors-plus.php on line 893

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-blog-header.php on line 16

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/template-loader.php on line 47

Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/template.php on line 407
NSF-REU » Blog Archive » Cole Waters – Analyzing Structure in Motion Technology to Measure Above Ground Biomass – Cole Anwyl Walters
Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/themes/ut/functions.php on line 119
Skip to Local Navigation
Skip to Content
California State University, Long Beach

Warning: include(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/themes/ut/functions.php on line 88
CSULB Geospatial Research and Mapping (GRAM) Field Program
Print this pageAdd this page to your favoritesSelect a font sizeSelect a small fontSelect a medium fontSelect a large font
 

Cole Waters – Analyzing Structure in Motion Technology to Measure Above Ground Biomass – Cole Anwyl Walters

Currently working with revision @ 2013-06-25 14:21:51 by Cole Anwyl Walters. Current version

Contents

[ hide ]

     

    Introduction

    The growing concern for the increase in carbon dioxide and industrial development has called for a paradigm shift to understanding the effects of fossil fuel combustion, land use change and forest land use. This is in turn has called for a fundamental understanding of global carbon sinks and the related biomass of densely vegetated environments being effected by infrastructure development and human fuel needs. Not only is this agenda evident and actively pursued in many major governments across the globe, a communal interest has matured to develop research about climate change and the associated factors. In the most recent decades, spatial analysts and environmental specialists have adopted remote sensing techniques to estimate the biomass of major areas of interest. However, as diverse as environments exist, the varied methods for measuring the biomass of respected locations have followed.

    New remote sensing techniques have developed in the past few years to actively scan and develop models of canopy structure, stand height, vegetation biomass and carbon stocks in micro level areas through forms of LIDAR and a modified version of Photosynth (Dandois et. al 2010). Recent algorithms have been put into place to develop 3D models of local areas. Dandois used this concept and mounted a digital camera to a balloon and/or hexacopter to render canopy structure from a modified version of Photosynth called Ecosynth to begin gauging the abilities of 3D rendered images in an environmental setting. Similar to Photosynth, Photoscan is a software developed by Agisoft to render 3D models in a systematic manner. This system can then be georeferenced to measure area and volume of a structure. Through advanced processing and simple calculations, relating volume to biomass is possible from a basic estimation perspective.

    This study will attempt to and pilot Photoscan’s ability to measure biomass from the perspective of volume and actively address how Photoscan can be modified to produce realistic estimations of biomass in a micro area upon further development and knowledge. The area under study takes place in the Ka’a’awa valley located on Oahu, Hawaii. The micro plot was chosen due to its bicultural arrangement of Monkey pod trees and Hau trees, thus presenting two very different types of canopy structure.

    Methodology

    (1)   Imagery and the associated geographic data was collected using a 16 megapixel Pentax WG-III with GPS capabilities mounted on a DJI Phantom Quadcopter with a GPS supported hovering accuracy of ± 2.5 horizontal meters and ± 0.8 vertical meters.

     


     

    (2)   Georeference points were collected using a Trimble Yuma installed with TerraServer. Points were collected for approximately 270 seconds and exported off the field. Points were manually corrected via Google Earth due to technical difficulties with the Yuma Trimble and GPS Office.

    (3)   Imagery was then rendered in a 3D format using Agisoft’s Photoscan. The 3D model and TIN was georeferenced from the previously collected points in the field. The point accuracy cloud was developed on “High.” Geometry and Texture was developed on “Medium.”

     

     

    (4)   The 3D model was clipped to focus on the study area and prepare for volume calculation. In addition, the model was closed using a feature from Photoscan. Volume was calculated based on formation of the canopy. The volume was then exported to prepare for biomass calculation.


     

     

    (5)   Biomass was calculated from a simplified version of a study developed looking at Above Ground Biomass in the Amazon (Brown 1997). From the perspective of this study, Monkey Pod Tree and Hau were separated for wood density calculations. Volume was calculated for each of the two species. Equations from the Brown study are represented in the context to this study. 

     

    However, Wood Density (WD) for this purpose of this study needs to be weighted towards the more populous species in the proximity. An alternate form of the first Wood Density equation that is more suited for this study is provided directly below. As you can see, Monkey Pod (mp) and Hau (hau) are the only species of trees represented in this plot.

    The Biomass Expansion factor is completely dependent on the size of the volume plot. In this case, the Biomass Expansion Factor can be derived by merely knowing the volume itself which is directly derived within Photoscan. This parameter is as follows:

    Results & Discussion

     

    The closed portion of the study area shows a biomass of approximately 22,607.3 tons. While the plot of study is heavily vegetated and dense in the portion of the Hau, this approximation is much too high. However, while this estimated amount shows the fallacies of the equation used, it shows the strengths, weaknesses and future of Photoscan’s ability to actively estimate biomass of a microenvironment.

    The criticism of this equation’s methodology begins with its coupling with Photoscan. As we can see from the basic TIN of the studied area, Photoscan begins to “melt” the canopy when point cloud elevation drops. This is fairly extreme near the two locations of the monkey pod trees. While this is obviously unrealistic, Photoscan lacks the ability to recognize a geometric change from a canopy crown to the stock/trunk. This is probably mainly due to the lack of ground photos taken from an arbitrary angle. This is a fairly expected and accounted for problem when using Photoscan in a research setting, but it turns to be problematic when calculating the volume of a given location.

    In response, Photoscan lacks the ability to measure volume let alone AG biomass of a fully developed crown-based canopy. However, Photoscan excels in being able to recognize and render very dense vegetation (ie. the Hau) that has fully developed shape and structure. Considering the heavy density of a proposed environment, estimated volume from a Photoscan naturally approaches the true volume due to absence of space between limbs. With the current Photoscan algorithms, Photoscan can be applied to understanding the formation and biomass of closed woodland, shrubland or certain types of agriculture.

    Secondly, this academic community lacks to ability to justly measure minute values of above ground biomass from canopy measurements without the use of LIDAR. On a species basis, the ability to recognize the amount of space not occupied by a specimen is essential. Not only is the space unoccupied under the point cloud the largest creator for error, it negates Photoscan’s usefulness when directly compared to waveform LIDAR. Further research would ideally be focused towards creating a volume expansion index accounting for the unoccupied space per volume area of a unit. This might be created from knowledge about the species, average volume per species, surface area per unit and general understanding of growth patterns.

    Lastly, Photoscan fully negates the ability to understand the terrain under the canopy. While this statement seems obvious due to Photoscan dependence on visible light to render a useable point cloud, it leaves a major flaw in the usefulness of Photoscan in a natural terrain where hills and depressions are likely. This issue might be quickly addressed in accepting that Photoscan will never have the ability to penetrate a fully developed brush canopy. In essence, Photoscan’s strengths in measuring AG biomass notes that it is not a costly version of LIDAR which certainly has the capabilities to penetrate a fully developed crowned ecosystem. Instead, accompanied with developed knowledge on the tool, Photoscan can be used on a micro level environment where elevation is relatively static (i.e. agriculture).

    Conclusion

                Further development and research needs to be focused on creating a volume expansion index that can estimate the average amount of space not occupied by a species in a given area unit. As the paradigm moves away from individual based ASEs, it is perhaps Photoscan’s and other 3D modeling tools best interest to be centered around stand-level harvests and be directly related to the collected remotely sensed data. This way, Photoscan will able to adapt from previously predicted models and correct itself until the desired levels of accuracy and precision are achieved (Clark et al. 2012).

     Works Cited

    Brown, S. 1997. Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests. FAO Forestry Paper 124:0259-2800.

    Clark D.B. and Kellner J.M. 2012. Tropical forest biomass estimation and the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. Journal of Vegetation Science 2012. Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103

    Dandois, J. P. and E. C. Ellis. 2010. Remote sensing of vegetation structure using computer vision. Remote Sensing 2(4):1157-1176

     


    Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/template.php on line 407

      Warning: require(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-content/plugins/all-in-one-event-calendar/app/helper/class-ai1ec-view-helper.php on line 68

      Important Dates

      Field Locations


    Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /webtree/colleges/cla/departments/geography/nsf-reu/wp-includes/template.php on line 407