This new CDC project is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two study arms. It is designed to evaluate the addition of a brief risk counseling (BRISC) intervention to the routinely offered HIV counseling and testing (ROCT) prevention messages for HIV-negative sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients who are attending two primary health care clinics or community health centers in Gauteng province, South Africa. The prevention interventions are aimed at STI patients who agree to HIV testing and test negative – but who can be considered to have high HIV/STI risk in that they have come to the clinic with an STI. Study Arm 1 will use the post-test HIV counseling for ROCT only, and Arm 2 will add a brief sexual risk reduction counseling (BRISC) to ROCT. The study will use baseline and follow-up assessments to examine sexual risk behaviors (comparison of Arms 1 and 2). Additionally, the number of people who agree to have an HIV test using ROCT will be monitored. Finally, STI and HIV test results at follow-up (months 1, 3, and 6) will be compared. This study is being conducted by researchers in South Africa and from the CDC. Dr. Malotte is participating as a co-investigator. Dr. Malotte has participated in the development of the study protocol and data collection instruments. He travelled to South Africa in January of 2009 to train study staff in BRISC counseling. As data from the trial becomes available, Dr. Malotte will also participate in the interpretation of the data and manuscript development.